Due to the introduction of modern highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) people living with HIV are now less likely to develop AIDS-related cancers. However, a recent study published in HIV Medicine shows women living with HIV still have a higher likelihood of being diagnosed with certain cancers when compared with the general population. This trend primarily involves cancers with underlying infectious causes such as human papillomavirus (HPV) and hepatitis.
The study shows a need for improved women-centred access and support:
• Women living with HIV with a cancer diagnosis were more likely than those without cancer to have an AIDS-defining illness at the time of diagnosis, a higher viral load, and a lower CD4 count.
• A significant portion of women were less than 95% adherent to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the year prior to cancer diagnosis.
• Nearly 69% of the women did not achieve virological suppression in the year prior to cancer diagnosis.
HIV-positive women with cancer had a significantly higher likelihood of mortality compared with HIV-positive women without cancer (46.2% compared to 17.5%).
The study was conducted as a collaboration between the BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS and BC Women’s Hospital’s Oak Tree Clinic. The resulting article, “Cancer incidence among HIV-positive women in British Columbia, Canada: Heightened risk of virus-related malignancies” is available at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26268461.
Above is the information needed to cite this article in your paper or presentation. The International Committee
of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommends the following citation style, which is the now nearly universally
accepted citation style for scientific papers:
Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL, Marion DW, Palmer AM, Schiding JK, et al. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:284-7.
About the ICMJE and citation styles
The ICMJE is small group of editors of general medical journals who first met informally in Vancouver, British Columbia, in 1978 to establish guidelines for the format of manuscripts submitted to their journals. The group became known as the Vancouver Group. Its requirements for manuscripts, including formats for bibliographic references developed by the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM), were first published in 1979. The Vancouver Group expanded and evolved into the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), which meets annually. The ICMJE created the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals to help authors and editors create and distribute accurate, clear, easily accessible reports of biomedical studies.
An alternate version of ICMJE style is to additionally list the month an issue number, but since most journals use continuous pagination, the shorter form provides sufficient information to locate the reference. The NLM now lists all authors.
BCMJ standard citation style is a slight modification of the ICMJE/NLM style, as follows:
- Only the first three authors are listed, followed by "et al."
- There is no period after the journal name.
- Page numbers are not abbreviated.
For more information on the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, visit www.icmje.org