Researchers at the Child and Family Research Institute (CFRI) BC Children’s Hospital and the University of British Columbia found a genetic variation that brings a 5-times higher risk of heart damage for cancer patients treated with a type of chemotherapy drug called anthracyclines.
Anthracyclines are a treatment for leukemia, bone tumors, and other cancers in both children and adults. In many patients the drugs cause permanent heart damage that can lead to heart failure, which can be immediate or develop years after treatment, and may require a heart transplant. Anthracyclines are prescribed to over 900 000 patients each year worldwide.
The researchers’ previous work identified two genes linked to anthracycline-related heart problems. The new discovery of a variation in the RARG gene allows for more precise genetic testing to identify patients at risk of these side effects.
There were 456 children in the study between February 2005 and April 2011. All of the children had normal heart function before receiving anthracyclines for their cancers. The researchers analyzed the children’s genomes, including genes involved in drug biotransformation. This allowed them to identity the RARG gene and its effects on the development of anthracycline-induced heart damage.
The article, “A coding variant in RARG confers susceptibility to anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity in childhood cancer” appeared in the September Nature Genetics and is available online at www.nature.com/ng/journal/v47/n9/full/ng.3374.html (paywall).
Above is the information needed to cite this article in your paper or presentation. The International Committee
of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommends the following citation style, which is the now nearly universally
accepted citation style for scientific papers:
Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL, Marion DW, Palmer AM, Schiding JK, et al. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:284-7.
About the ICMJE and citation styles
The ICMJE is small group of editors of general medical journals who first met informally in Vancouver, British Columbia, in 1978 to establish guidelines for the format of manuscripts submitted to their journals. The group became known as the Vancouver Group. Its requirements for manuscripts, including formats for bibliographic references developed by the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM), were first published in 1979. The Vancouver Group expanded and evolved into the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), which meets annually. The ICMJE created the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals to help authors and editors create and distribute accurate, clear, easily accessible reports of biomedical studies.
An alternate version of ICMJE style is to additionally list the month an issue number, but since most journals use continuous pagination, the shorter form provides sufficient information to locate the reference. The NLM now lists all authors.
BCMJ standard citation style is a slight modification of the ICMJE/NLM style, as follows:
- Only the first three authors are listed, followed by "et al."
- There is no period after the journal name.
- Page numbers are not abbreviated.
For more information on the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, visit www.icmje.org